Ability Level– Referring to instructional material that is appropriate for that particular child’s understanding.
Abbreviation - Short form of a word or phrase. Example: Texas = TX or University of California, Los Angeles = UCLA
Action Verb - See Verbs
Action Words - See Action Verbs definition in Verbs
Adjectives - Words that describe nouns and pronouns
Adverbs - Words that describe verbs. They usually answer how, when, where, and why.
Alphabetic Principle- The ability to recognize and name letters and understand that each letter makes a sound. The alphabetic principle is the idea that alphabetical characters can be coded into words.
Blends - Two consonants that make one sound such as bl, sl, cl, gl, pl, br, cr, fr, gr, pr, tr, sk, sn,
Cause - The reason something happens
Character - A person or animal is a story
Classifying - See Sorting
Clause - A group of words that have a subject and predicate that and is part of a compound or complex sentence.
Compare - Look for things thate are the same
Complement - A phrase or clause that follows a linking verb and complements the subject by renaming it or describing it. Example: This is a nice toy.
Complex Sentences - Use one independent clause and one dependent clause. Example: Bria dances although Bryce plays basketball.
Compound Sentence - Two independent clauses joined together by a conjuction, adverb, or semicolon. Examples: Bryce takes a nap, Bria plays games. Bria likes princesses, but Bryce likes cars. Bria reads story books; her brother reads board books.
Compound Words - Two smaller words put together such as pancake.
Consonant Blends - (see Blends)
Consonant Teams - Two or three consonant letters that have a single sound such as sh, th, tch, scr, spl, shr, spr, str, ng, nk
Contraction - A short way to write two words. Example: it is = it's
Contrast - Look for things that are different.
Dependent Clause - A group of words that has a subject and a verb but does not express a complete thought. Example: When Bryce got his candy (What happened when he got the candy? It does not express a complete thought.)
Details - Parts of a story that help you understand what the story is about.
Digraph - Pair of consonants(blends) or vowels used to write one phoneme (distict sound) such as tooth and crawl
Diphthongs - Two vowels that combine together to make a new sound such as oi in oil, oy in toy, ou in around, and ow in owl.
Double Vowel Words - When two vowels are put together in a word, the first one says its name and the second one is silent such as meat. You hear the e and the a is silent.
Drawing Conclusions - Use your own thoughts to answer the question, "How could that have happened?".
Effect - The result of something happening
Exclamation Sentence - A senctence that shows stong feelings suce as anger, fear, excitement. These sentences end with an exclamation mark (!).
Fantasy - Story events that are make believe. Ask could this happen?
Fluency- The ability to read a text accurately and quickly. Fluent readers recognize words automatically. They group words quickly to help them gain meaning from what they read. Because fluent readers do not have to concentrate on decoding the words, they can focus their attention on what the text means. Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.
Grammar - The rules of how sentences are put together using syntax and word formation.
Homographs - Words that are spelled the same but have a different meaning like the bow of a ship and a bow posture position are homographs.
Homophones - Words that are pronounced the same, but have different meaning are homophones. For example, pane and pain sound the same, yet have different meanings. Another example is carrot, carat, and caret.
Independent Clause - A group of words that contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. Example: Bria read the book.
Inference - Using parts of the story to help draw a conclusion about the story
Language - Thoughts and feelings used by a system of a nation, people, or distinct community using voice sounds, signals, gestures, or written symbols (letters, numbers, punctuation marks)
Linking Verb - Linking verbs link a subject to a complement and must be followed by a complement to make sense. Current linking verbs - appear, be, fear, lie, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste. Resulting verbs - become, fall, get, grow, prove, run, turn
Main Idea - Tells what the wshole story is about
Noun - Person, place, or thing
Onset - The part of a syllable that precedes the nucleus. In the word nucleus (nû'klç-əs), the onset of the first syllable is (n), the onset of the second syllable is (kl), and the last syllable has no onset.
Phonemes - The smallest unit of distinguished meaning. Patterns of letter-sound correspondence and spelling in English.
Phonemic Awareness - The ability to distinquish and manipulate different sounds. Once a child has phonemic awareness, they are aware that sounds are like building blocks that can be used to build different words.
Phonograms - See Word Families
Phonological Awareness. Phonological awareness is ability to distinguish distinct sounds. Dog can be broken down to separate sounds d-o-g.
Phrase - A group of words that acts as a single unit. Example: the toys in the toy box
Plural Nouns - Word that show more than one
Predicate - The predicate of a sentence tells what the subject is doing or being.
Prefix - Syllables added to the beginning of words to change their meaning. Example: unlucky = un + lucky
Print Concepts- Awareness that print conveys a message. Print conventions consist of directionality (left to right, top to bottom), distinctions between upper and lower case, punctuation, and books have common characteristics such as author, title, front/back.
Punctuation - Everything in written language except the letters and numbers.
Questions - Questions ask something. Question sentences end with a question mark (?).
R-Controlled Vowels - When a vowel is followed by r (ar, er, ir, or, ur), it has a different sound as in he becomes her.
R-Controlled Words - Words using r-contolled vowels such as bird, star, burn.
Reading Comprehension - A process in which the reader intentionally and interactively engages with the text. Reading comprehension depends on word recognition, decoding, fluency, and a well developed vocabulary.
Real - Story events that could happen are real.
Rhyming Words - Words that have the same ending sound such as mail / ale or cat / hat
Rimes - See Word Families
Sentence - Tells a complete thought or idea. Words in a sentence must be in order to make sense.
Sequencing - Put events from a story in the order that they happened.
Sight Words - High frequency words that are not able to be shown on a picture such as to and that
Silent E - When e comes at the end of the end of the word, you cannot hear it such as cake.
Silent Letters - Some words have letters you can't hear such as the gh in light, the b in climb, the t in listen, the k in knee
Simple Sentence - A simple sentence has one independent clause. Bryce drinks milk.
Singular words - Words that show one noun
Sorting - Grouping like things together makes it easierto remember what you read
State of Being Verb - See Verbs
Subject - Who or what the sentence is about. Example: The hungry children ate all the fruit. The hungry children is the complete subject.
Subject and Verb Agreement - A singular subject has to be matched to a plural verb. A plural subject has to be matched to a singular verb. Example: Boy plays. Girls play.
Suffix - A syllable that is added at the end of the word to change its meaning. Example: helpful = help + ful
Syllable - A unit of spoken language that consists of a single uninterrupted sound formed by a vowel, diphthong, or syllabic consonant, or by any of these sounds preceded, followed, or surrounded by one or more consonants. Example: syl-la-ble
Syntax - The study of rules that govern the way words combine to form clauses, phrases, and sentences.
Verbs - Words that show action or state of being. Action verbs tell what a person or thing is doing. State of being verbs state that someting is. State of being verbs include is, am, were, was, are, be, being, been.
Visualizing - Picture the story so that as you read you can understand it better.
Vowels - A, E, I, O, U and sometimes Y. But, usually when asked to name the 5 vowels, it is a, e, i, o, and u.
Word Families - Words that are have a pattern of the same ending spellings such as well, shell, yell. There are 37 most frequently used patterns. ack, ail, ain, ake, ale, ame, an, ank, ap, ash, at, ate, aw, ay, eat, ell, en, et, ice, ick,ide,ig, ight, ill, in, ine, ing, ink, ip, it, ock, oke, op, ore, ot, uck, ug, ump, unk, up, ut
Word Order - Words in a sentence must be in order to make